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Quantum Physics Is it the Wave of the Future?

Hala Ayyash

Quantum Physics Is it the Wave of the Future?

From 1900 to 1930 there was a revolution in the foundations of our understanding of light and matter interactions. In 1900 Planck showed that light energy must be emitted and absorbed in discrete 'quanta' to explain blackbody radiation. Then in 1905 Einstein showed that the energy of light is determined by its frequency, where E=hf. Finally, in the late 1920s, de Broglie and Schrodinger introduced the concept of Standing Waves to explain these discrete frequency and energy states of light and matter (standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies and thus energy states). Although Einstein was most famous for his theory of relativity, the prize was officially awarded for his work on quantum theory. Throughout the first quarter of the century, Einstein made many important contributions to this field, the first of which was his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect. From 1905 to 1923, he was one of the only scientists to take seriously the existence of light quanta, or photons. However, he was strongly opposed to the new version of quantum mechanics developed by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger in 1925-26, and from 1926 onwards, Einstein led the opposition to quantum mechanics. He was thus both a major contributor to and a major critic of quantum theory. Einstein's early contributions to quantum theory include his heuristic suggestion that light behaves as if it is composed of photons, and his exploration of the quantum structure of the mechanical energies of particles embedded in matter. In 1909, he introduced what was later called the wave-particle duality, the idea that the wave theory of light had to be supplemented by an equally valid yet contradictory quantum theory of light as discrete particles. Many of Einstein's quantum ideas were incorporated into a new model of the atom. Neils Bohr is considered the grandfather of quantum mechanics. One of his most significant contributions to the study of quantum mechanics is his theory of the atom and its quantum structure—known as Bohr’s Atomic Theory. Bohr wanted to theorize about the quantum property of all forms of energy. In order to do that, he would have to explain how energy was released at the atomic level. He went about this by developing a better picture of the atom’s structure. The current one that had been developed by Ernst Rutherford needed some tweaking to explain how atoms could emit light and yet not collapse in on themselves. Light is created when energy is released from matter in the form of electromagnetic radiation In the early 1920s, Bohr came up with a way to understand the stability and exactness of atoms using the analogy of standing waves. You can create your own standing waves by using a jump rope secured at both ends. If you pump energy into it and get it swinging, it can vibrate only in a certain number of predetermined ways. A violin string is another example. It can vibrate in its fundamental frequency, or twice, three times, or four times that frequency—in other words, its characteristic harmonics. It can’t vibrate at two and one-half times that frequency.  Now you know both Einstein’s and Bohr’s theory. Other subjects that related that talk about the quantum theory is: Entanglement, Entanglement is a physical resource, like energy, associated with the peculiar nonclassical correlations that are possible between separated quantum systems. Entanglement can be measured, transformed, and purified. A pair of quantum systems in an entangled state can be used as a quantum information channel to perform computational and cryptographic tasks that are impossible for classical systems. The general study of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems is the subject of quantum information theory.  This subject struck out many arguments between scientists including Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument was, in many ways, the culmination of Einstein's critique of the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, and was designed to show that the theory is incomplete. 

Here are some verses from Quran that talk about the topics

Surah 27:38 An-Naml

قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِي بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ      

He said (to his own men): "Ye Chiefs! which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?"


قَالَ عِفْرِيتٌ مِنَ الْجِنِّ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقُومَ مِنْ مَقَامِكَ ۖ وَإِنِّي عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِيٌّ أَمِينٌ


Said an Ifrit of the Jinns: "I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy Council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose and may be trusted."

Surah 41:53 Ha-Mim

سَرِنُيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُم ْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ ۗ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَىٰكُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ


Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth) and in their own souls until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?


Surah 3:190 Al-i'Imran


إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآيَاتٍ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are indeed Signs for men of understanding